Why do people have different blood types? Find out the mystery!

Blood types

Blood types will really annoy you in some instances, aren’t they? Imagine your friend or any stranger met with an accident or injury. He is in need of blood, but to help him you can’t just take out the blood and transfuse it or can’t run out for blood banks. Firstly, the blood type should match with the receiver. The one who involve in blood donation know what all the things to be considered and tested before blood donation. But have you ever think why do the people have different blood groups and do they really matter? If yes, find out the mystery behind that.

You might have heard about A, B, AB and O positive blood groups. In the first decade of 1900, the Australian physician named Karl Landsteiner has discovered A, B, and O blood groups. After that, the doctors have developed even more powerful equipment and recognized 23 blood groups with a series of experiments.

What differentiates one blood group from other?

The blood flowing through the veins is a collection of proteins, carbohydrates, white blood cells (Leukocytes), red blood cells and other molecules. The red blood cells are comparatively more than other cells in our body and define the blood group. Actually, the “type” refers to the antigen sticking on the surface of red blood cell and it differentiates from one another. An antigen is a substance that prompts a response from an immune cell called as an antibody. The antibody is a kind of large protein that helps to remove the intruders such as invading bacteria and virus from the human body.

The antibody is a key protein for immune system response. It mainly seeks for the pattern of molecules on the surface of the cell. Suppose if it meets distinct pattern, it immediately sends a signal to the immune system for reminding that it is a hitting time. Usually, the blood type inherits from the parents.

Types of blood types:

In actual, there are many blood types, but you might have heard only a few types such as A, B, and O. Even you have seen some blood groups with signs such as A positive, O positive, B negative, AB positive and so on. Here, the alphabet indicates that which arrangement of antigen is present on the surface of the red blood cell. If a person has A antigen on his cell, the blood group is type A. If the person has B antigen, he belongs to type B blood group. A person has neither the A nor B antigens on the blood cells is considered as a type O blood group. Someone with both A and B antigens on the red blood cells is type AB.

A collection of antigens is called as Rhesus (abbreviated as Rh). Rh divides each of the blood groups into positive and negative by looking into blood protein. Someone with the protein (D antigen) is supposed to be called as positive blood type. Person without D antigen is considered to be a negative blood type.

Find out who can be the donors and recipients:

  • A person with O blood group can donate red blood cells to any one. They also called as universal donors.
  • Group A blood group can donate red blood cells to the person with A and AB type.
  • Blood group B person can be the donor for someone with B and AB type
  • Group AB can donate red blood cells to AB’s, but able to receive from all other groups. As they have all the relevant antigens on their cells.

Suppose if your blood group is A positive, that means your body produces A antigens on the cells with Rh factor your group will be A positive. So, you could not transmit your blood to someone who has Rh negative and B group.

What happens if the person transfuses wrong blood group?

Some blood types are incompatible with others because of antibodies. Someone with A group blood will not have B group antigen on their red blood cells and will oppose antibody B.  If it mismatches this may lead to the cause of the serious fatal reaction.

If a small mismatch is happened it will be handled by the immune system. But in case of full transfusion the blood will get clotted before break down and leads to the damage of blood vessels.

This is a short article which helps you to understand about the blood types before donating the blood. If you are in need of blood in Bangalore, contact iRelief services Pvt. Ltd. or download its app to find out 24 hours blood banks. iRelief is a health care aggregator in Bangalore by offering Blood bank services, Ambulance services, Home care and pharmacy services. This will also help you to find out the rare blood group with the quantity and quality.